production of beer essentially hasn't changed since the
Middle Ages. The basic principles can be traced back to
the Sumerians. Even back then it was all about producing
a refreshing, tasty and more or less alcoholic drink through
the mysterious method of fermentation.
is gained by the fermentation of grain and other cereals
containing starch. Most beer is produced from barley that
has been processed into malt and flavored with hops. Beer
produced in Germany is subject to purity regulations:
it may only be brewed from barley malt, hops, yeast and
is used in brewing in Japan, China und Korea (there it's
called sake, samshu or suk), in Africa it is millet and
sorghum, among other things. Russian kvass is brewed from
fermented rye bread and fruit.
of the differences in flavor, aroma and color stem from
the technical processes that are characteristic of each
country, type of beer and master brewer.
of climate, season and even location, the quality of beer
is a matter of the procedure that has been gained over
generations or the result of the scientific application
of modern technology.
upon the yeast used, there is a basic distinguishing feature
in the diversity of beers produced in Europe. Beers produced
with top-fermenting yeast (i.e. the yeast swims on the
fermenting brew) are called top-fermented beers. Beers
produced with bottom-fermenting yeast (i.e. the yeast
acts at the bottom of the fermenting brew) are called